The Mathematical Beauty of The Perfect Numbers

  • Willie Reynolds
  • Mulatu Lemma Professor
Keywords: Prime Numbers, Perfect numbers, Triangular numbers, Perfect square, Pascal Triangles


Mathematicians have been fascinated for centuries by the properties and patterns of numbers. They have noticed that some numbers are equal to the sum of all of their factors (not including the number itself). Such numbers are called perfect numbers. Thus a positive integer is called a perfect number if it is equal to the sum of its proper positive divisors. The search for perfect numbers began in ancient times. The four perfect numbers 6, 28, 496, and 8128 seem to have been known from ancient times.  In this paper, we will investigate some important properties of perfect numbers. We give easy and simple proofs of theorems using finite series. We give our own alternative proof of the well-known Euclid’s Theorem (Theorem I). We will also prove some important theorems which play key roles in the mathematical theory of perfect numbers.



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Author Biographies

Willie Reynolds

Department of Mathematics, Savannah State University, USA

Mulatu Lemma, Professor

Department of Mathematics

College of Science and Technology

Savannah State University USA


Kimberly Jones, Stephanie Parker, Mulatu Lemma, The Mathematical Magic of Perfect Numbers.: Georgia Journal of Science
Burton, D. M. (1998). Elementary number theory. New York City, New
How to Cite
Reynolds, W., & Lemma, M. (2021). The Mathematical Beauty of The Perfect Numbers. GPH - International Journal of Mathematics, 4(06), 43-51. Retrieved from

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