IJER-International Journal of Educational Research http://www.gphjournal.org/index.php/er <p>IJER - Journal of Educational Research publishes a wide range of high-quality research&nbsp; articles in the field (but not limited to) given below: <br>Academic Advising and Counselling, Adult Education, Art Education, Business Education, Counsellor Education, Cross-disciplinary Areas of Education, Curriculum, Research and Development, Distance Education, Early Childhood Education, etc.</p> GPH - International Journals en-US IJER-International Journal of Educational Research <p>Author(s) and co-author(s)&nbsp;jointly&nbsp;and severally represent and warrant that the Article is original with the author(s) and does not infringe any&nbsp;copyright or violate any other right of any third parties, and that the Article has not been published&nbsp;elsewhere.&nbsp;Author(s) agree to the terms that the <strong>GPH Journal</strong> will have the full right to remove the published article on any misconduct found in the published article.</p> THE EFFECTIVE READING HABIT: A PRACTICE TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA AMIDST COVID-19 PANDEMIC http://www.gphjournal.org/index.php/er/article/view/497 <p><em>Many schools at different levels of education including Secondary schools worldwide were suspended classroom teaching due to the novel coronavirus pandemic and switched to online teaching. In most developing countries, physical learning is faced with a number of challenges part of which is inadequate facilities of instruction. Switching to online teaching and learning in these countries is likely to face challenges such as; lack of background knowledge of online teaching by teachers and learning by students, inadequate ICT facilities, poor electricity supply, the poor network for connection, constraints in purchasing data, etc. These challenges affect students of secondary schools in Nigeria thereby making them stayed without learning online and subsequently affect their performance. Now that the schools were reopened, it was opined that the students should imbibe effective reading habits to improve their academic performance. To support this, it was recommended that students/parents/schools should make available the required reference materials and time of extra reading among others. </em></p> ABUBAKAR MUHAMMAD LAWAL ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 4 10 01 07 INLUENCE OF POLITICS IN EDUCATION IN NIGERIA: PROBLEMS AND WAY FORWARD http://www.gphjournal.org/index.php/er/article/view/498 <p><em>The influence of politics on education can be traced to the development of civil society itself. Societies evolved from the primitive stages where people agreed and submitted themselves to an authority for control. As a result of that and the legitimacy accords to the authorities, the forces of development in the societies in terms of economic, cultural, social, and political are determined and directed by the authorities. It is on the above backgrounds this paper looks at the negative influence of politics in education in Nigeria which ranges from inequalities in the Nigerian education sector, poor staffing, inadequate funding, and half-backed graduates among others. Furthermore, the positive influence of politics in education in Nigeria is also reiterated such as level of pupil enrolment, quality product, adequate budgetary allocation and funding of education, availability of adequate and quality teachers in schools, and many more.&nbsp; The paper concludes that educational leadership should be based on merit, policies are made considering the needs of the society, and graduate to be produced on the needs of the economy.</em></p> ABUBAKAR MUHAMMAD LAWAL ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 4 10 08 17 ASSESSMENT OF DIFFICULT MATHEMATICS CONCEPTS AS PERCEIVED BY PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA http://www.gphjournal.org/index.php/er/article/view/500 <p><em>This study assessed the difficult Mathematics concepts as perceived by primary school teachers in Enugu State, Nigeria. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Three research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The population of the study was one thousand six hundred and thirty two (1,632) primary school teachers and a sample of 313 primary school teachers were selected through multi-stage sampling. Mathematics Difficulty Level Inventory (MDLI) was the instrument used for the collection of data. The instrument was face and content validated by experts and also trial tested. The reliability of MDLI items was determined using Cronbach alpha reliability test which yielded reliability coefficient of 0.87 considered high enough to be used for the study. The findings of the study revealed that primary school teachers in Enugu state perceived 19 out of 30 mathematics concepts to be difficult; there was significant difference in the frequencies of difficult mathematics concepts across gender line and school ownership. Based on these findings, the researcher recommended amongst others that workshops, seminars and conferences should be organized for primary school teachers on basic mathematics concepts; relevant authorities should ensure the recruitment of qualified primary school teachers especially in public schools. &nbsp;</em></p> Benson Chukwunonso Ezeanyi Olukunbi Benedicta Fidel-Imoisili Elizabeth Bolatito Sowunmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 4 10 18 29 La communication comme composante de la compétence interculturelle en entreprises : http://www.gphjournal.org/index.php/er/article/view/501 <p>Intercultural competency is the capacity of understanding situations of intercultural interactions and adapt to them. It is also a communicative competency that uses the language as one of the communication languages. The languages used in communication could be verbal or non-verbal. To adapt to a different culture, the language is a necessary tool to enter this culture. So, is it&nbsp;enough to speak a country language to adapt to the culture of that country? Knowing that the non-verbal communication&nbsp;intervenes in oral communication, are there any&nbsp;equivalences of non-verbal in other cultures?</p> Mme Zahra HMIMID M. Smail HAFIDI ALAOUI ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 4 10 30 41 Influence of Teachers Pedagogical ICT Training on The Integration of ICT in Teaching the English Language in Secondary Schools in Nyandarua County, Kenya http://www.gphjournal.org/index.php/er/article/view/502 <p><em>The learning environment has changed where ICT enhances mastery of the content, provides wide-ranging information, and also provides teachers with a variety in the presentation of content. The purpose of this study was to determine the integration of ICT in teaching the English Language in secondary schools in Nyandarua County, Kenya. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of teachers'’ pedagogical ICT training on the integration of ICT in teaching the English language in secondary schools in Nyandarua County, Kenya. The study used the Constructivism theory by Vygotsky and Piaget. A survey research design was used. The study population was 168 public secondary schools and 392 teachers of English Language in Nyandarua County. Using 30% the researcher arrived at a sample of 50.4 and 117.6 respectively. Hence, a total number of 118 teachers of 50 public schools were sampled using a simple random sampling technique. Data was collected using a checklist and questionnaires. By conducting test-retest reliability of the questionnaire using SPSS version 22, an index of .782 was realized. The obtained data were analyzed systematically using descriptive statistics and presented using frequency tables, and percentages. The study findings from the questionnaire revealed that pedagogical skills affected ICT integration in teaching the English Language. The results of this study were expected to provide insights to the Ministry of Education in Kenya to improve the low use of ICT in teaching English language skills and help in formulating strategies of making teachers blend the traditional method of teaching with ICT which will consequently enhance students’ mastery of content.</em></p> Jane Wangare Waruingi Susan Chepkonga Justus Mochama Gori Florence Kisirkoi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-10-29 2021-10-29 4 10 42 55 EFFECTS OF VIRTUAL LABORATORY INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY ON STUDENTS’ACHIEVEMENT IN CHEMISTRY PRACTICAL AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGER STATE http://www.gphjournal.org/index.php/er/article/view/496 <p><em>This study examined the effects of virtual laboratory package on students ‘achievement in chemistry practicals among senior secondary schools II students. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design. Pretest, posttest experimental, and control groups design was adopted. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level significance. The population for the study comprises 3395 senior secondary school chemistry students 2019/2020 academic sessions within Minna metropolis, Niger state. A multi-stage sampling technique was employed, which was clustered into A &amp;B with a sample size of 120. Four schools were randomly sampled for the study. Balancing of Chemical Equation Achievement Test (BOCEAT) is comprised of two sections. Section A contained ten multiple choice objective questions with four response options A - D, while section B contained ten questions that requires two responses of skeletal and balancing equations, which were used for data collection in the study. The instruments were validated by three experts, one in Measurement and Evaluation and two science educators in theDepartment of Science Education of the Federal University of Technology, Minna for both face and content validation. Test, a retest was administered to ascertain reliability index for BOCEATand the data collected from both the experimental and control groups for the reliability were statistically analyzed using a t-test to calculate the internal consistency which yielded 0.87. The data collected for the study were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer research questions and a t-test to test the formulated hypothesis at 0.05 levels of significance. Findings from the study showed that virtual laboratory package impacted positively on students’ academic achievement in chemistry practical than the traditional methods. On the mean achievement, scores of male and female students taught balancing of chemical equations using virtual laboratory package, the female did better than the male. Based on the findings of the study, chemistry teachers should be encouraged to use a virtual laboratory package while teaching chemistry concepts especially balancing chemical equations.</em></p> S. MOHAMMED A. Chado B. Dalhatu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-11-12 2021-11-12 4 10 56 63 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MALE AND FEMALE PRINCIPALS’ LEADERSHIP ROLE PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ANAMBRA STATE http://www.gphjournal.org/index.php/er/article/view/510 <p><em>The study compared male and female principals’ leadership role performance in secondary schools in Anambra State. Three research questions guided the study and Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consisted 6,382 teachers in state government owned secondary schools in the six education zones of Anambra State. A sample size of 2,439 teachers was drawn using multi-stage sampling procedure. A researchers’ developed instrument titled “Principals’ Role Performance Questionnaire” (PRPQ) structured on a four point scale and validated by three experts was used for data collection. The internal consistency of the instrument was ascertained using Cronbach’s Alpha and this yielded reliability coefficients of 0.84, 0.86, and 0.81 for the three parts of the PRPQ. Of the 2,439 copies of the instrument administered, 1,860 were retrieved and used for the analyses. Mean score was used to analyze the research questions and t-test for testing the hypotheses. The findings of the study shows that teachers perceived male principals performance in maintenance of discipline and management of conflict to be greater than that of their female counterparts. Teachers perceived male and female principals performance on supervision of instruction to be the same. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the government should as a matter of urgency organize training programs for the principals on strategies for maintaining discipline in the schools. The State Government should also consider appointing male principals to those schools worst-hit by indiscipline.</em></p> K. Obiekwe, Kingsley Obianuju Adaobi Mbonu Ifeanyi Francis Ikedimma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 4 10 64 71