GPH-International Journal of Agriculture and Research <p style="font-family: Helvetica;">The scope of GPH - International Journal of Agriculture &amp; Research is not limited to the following subject areas: Agronomy, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Plant Science, Fertilizers and pesticides, Genetic Engineering &amp; plant breeding, Animal science veterinary Science, Aquaculture/Fisheries, Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural machinery, Post Harvest and Quality, Agricultural development, Agricultural Economics, Rural Development, Sustainable Agriculture, Organic agriculture, Soil Conservation, Soil Science, Rainwater harvesting and crop water management, Crop Genetics &amp; Breeding, Tillage &amp; Cultivation Agricultural products – Raw Materials, Foods, Fibers, Fuels, Irrigation, Soil &amp; Fertilization.<span style="font-size: medium;"><a title="Journal Impact Factor" href=""><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: 'Book Antiqua', serif;"><span style="helvetica: Arial, serif;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: 1.5em;"><strong><span style="text-shadow: #FF0000 0px 0px 2px;">Impact Factor: 1.877</span></strong></span></span></span></span></span></a></span></p> en-US <p>Author(s) and co-author(s)&nbsp;jointly&nbsp;and severally represent and warrant that the Article is original with the author(s) and does not infringe any&nbsp;copyright or violate any other right of any third parties, and that the Article has not been published&nbsp;elsewhere.&nbsp;Author(s) agree to the terms that the <strong>GPH Journal</strong> will have the full right to remove the published article on any misconduct found in the published article.</p> (Dr. EKEKE, JOHN NDUBUEZE) (Dossa Kossivi Fabrice) Tue, 02 Aug 2022 07:00:54 +0000 OJS 60 GROWTH AND RESULTS OF DAYAK ONION (EleutherineamericanaMerr.) AT VARIOUS DOSAGE COW MANURE FERTILIZER AND KCl FERTILIZER <p>Development in the cultivation of Dayak plants needs to be developed so that each Dayak plant can grow and produce optimally. The addition of nutrients to the arrangement of Dayak onion plants can help the plants to get maximum results. This study aims to determine: (1) the interaction between cow manure fertilizer and KCl fertilizer on growth and yield, (2) the dose of cow manure fertilizer that can provide the best growth and yield, and (3) the dose of KCl fertilizer that can provide growth and yield. the best yield on Dayak onion (<em>Eleutherineamericana</em>).</p> <p>The research was conducted from March to July 2020 in the Bukit Pinang Suryanata housing complex, Samarinda, Indonesia. The experiment used a 3 x 4 factorial arranged in a Randomized Completely Block Design with five replications. The first factor is the provision of cow manure consisting of&nbsp; 0, 20, and 40 Mg.ha<sup>-1</sup> fertilizer while the second factor is the KCl fertilizer dose consists of 0, 100, 200, and 300 kg.ha<sup>-1</sup>. The data obtained was analized using analysis of variance if the significant effect was to compare the two treatment averages using the Least Significant Difference test at the 5% level.</p> <p>The results showed the interaction between the treatment of cow manure and KCl fertilizer on the variable number of plants aged 2 and 4 weeks after planting. The application of cow manure fertilizer has a significant effect on plant height, number of leaves, wet weight, number of tubers, dry weight. The application of KCl fertilizer showed a significant effect on the variable number of leaves at 2weeks after planting. Cow manure fertilizer 40 Mg.ha<sup>-1</sup> and KCl fertilizer 300 kg.ha<sup>-1</sup> provide the best growth for Dayakonions plants.</p> EKO ANGGA SAPUTRA, . SUSYLOWATI, BAMBANG SUPRIYANTO ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 02 Aug 2022 07:18:50 +0000 PEELED CORN (Zea mays L.) BUSINESS INCOME CONTRIBUTION TO FARMERS' HOUSEHOLD INCOME (CASE STUDY IN BANGUN REJO VILLAGE, TENGGARONG SEBERANG SUB DISTRICT, KUTAI KARTANEGARA REGENCY) <p>The purpose of the study was to determine the income, total household income of farmers, and the contribution of peeled corn farming income in Bangun Rejo Village, Tenggarong Seberang sub District, Kutai Kartanegara Regency to the total income of shelled corn farmers. The study was conducted from October 2020 to January 2021 in Bangun Rejo Village, Tenggarong Seberang sub District, Kutai Kartanegara Regency, East Kalimantan Province. Sampling using a saturated sample or census of all corn farmers as many as 45 people. The data collected includes primary data and secondary data, data analysis includes farming costs, income, farm income, household income, and the contribution of shelled corn cultivation. The results showed that (1) the average production of shelled corn farming in Bangun Rejo Village, Tenggarong Seberang sub District was 1.433,11 kg<sup>-1 </sup>mt<sup>-1&nbsp; </sup>with an average land area of 0,79 ha<sup>-1</sup>so that the average total revenue is Rp 21.825.333,33 year<sup>-1 </sup>with an average total farm cost of Rp 3.492.637,04 year<sup>-1</sup>, and the average total income of peeled corn farming is Rp 9.997.422,22 year<sup>-1</sup>; (2)The total household income of farmers originating from peeled corn farming, non-peeled corn farming and non-agricultural income in Bangun Rejo Village, Tenggarong Seberang sub District is an average of Rp 16.675.288,89year<sup>-1</sup>; and (3) Peeled corn farming has a relatively high contribution to the household income of farmers in Bangun Rejo Village, Tenggarong Seberang sub District, amounting to 60%.</p> Syarifah Aida, . Mursidah, Yusril Renaldy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 02 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 UTILIZATION OF EXOPHYTIC AND ENDOPHYTIC MICROBES IN CONTROLLING ALTERNARIA FRUIT ROT OF APPLE (Malus domestica Borkh) <p><span class="fontstyle0">Apple rot disease caused by </span><span class="fontstyle2">Alternaria </span><span class="fontstyle0">sp. is a postharvest disease that is often found when fruit is marketed, transported and stored. The results showed that there were 45 isolates of exophytic microbes and 27 isolates of endophytes. The microbial diversity index of healthy apple exophytes is 1.249, this means that the condition of the commodity structure is quite stable with a medium category and a scale of 3, while the dominance index is 0.896, meaning that there are 10 isolates of the dominating species, namely </span><span class="fontstyle2">Lasiodiplodia theobromae</span><span class="fontstyle0">. With a evenness index of 0.885. The endophytic microbial diversity index in healthy apples was 2.793, which means the condition of the commodity structure was more stable with a good category and a scale of 4. The Simpson dominance index was 0.739, meaning that there was a dominant species, namely </span><span class="fontstyle2">Rhizopus </span><span class="fontstyle0">sp. as many as 23 isolates, with a evenness index value of 0.458. The inhibition of exophytic and endophytic microbes against pathogens </span><span class="fontstyle2">in vitro </span><span class="fontstyle0">showed that the highest inhibition of exophytic microbes was </span><span class="fontstyle2">Actinomyces bovis </span><span class="fontstyle0">(Actinomycetes), </span><span class="fontstyle2">A. niger, </span><span class="fontstyle2">Colletotrichum </span><span class="fontstyle0">sp., and </span><span class="fontstyle2">Rhizopus </span><span class="fontstyle0">sp. each of 83.33±00%, while the highest endophyte was shown by </span><span class="fontstyle2">L. theobromae </span><span class="fontstyle0">at 83.33±00%, followed by the fungus </span><span class="fontstyle2">Rhizopus </span><span class="fontstyle0">sp. by 80.55±5.89% and the smallest by the fungus </span><span class="fontstyle2">A. niger </span><span class="fontstyle0">by 78.89±4.19%. </span><span class="fontstyle2">In vivo </span><span class="fontstyle0">inhibition of exophytic and endophytic microbes against pathogens showed that their effect was very significant in suppressing pathogen growth in fresh fruit. The effect of treatment C (</span><span class="fontstyle2">A. niger</span><span class="fontstyle0">) was very good in suppressing the growth of pathogens, so that the apples still looked smooth and fresh, different from treatments A (</span><span class="fontstyle2">L. theobromae</span><span class="fontstyle0">) and K+P (treatment with pathogens).</span> </p> I Made Sudarma, Ni Wayan Suniti, Ni Nengah Darmiati ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ANALYSIS OF AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES ENGAGED BY RURAL FARMERS` IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA <p>The study analyzed the effects of agroforestry practices engaged by rural farmers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Agroforestry practices have the potentials to improve environmental and socio-economic welfare of the farmers. Hence, this study specifically described the socio-economic characteristics of the rural farmers; ascertained the rural farmers’ perception of agroforestry practices; ascertained the agroforestry practices engaged in by the rural farmers. The hypothesis tested is; the socioeconomic characteristics of the rural farmers do not significantly influence their agroforestry practices. Multistage sampling technique was used in the selection of agroforestry farmers. A total of 351 farmers were sampled using structured questionnaire. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed that 68.7% of the farmers were males. The mean age was 48.5years. Majority (72.4%) were married, having an average household size of 5 persons. On education of the farmers, 91.5% of them received formal education, with an average farm size of 1.2ha and average monthly income of N67,523. Majority (71.5%) were members of social organization, with 89.5% having access to extension service, while 62.1% and 34.2% accessed agroforestry information from Ebonyi State Agricultural Development Programme and Agrodealers respectively. Increased farm productivity (&nbsp;= 3.6), and increased household income (&nbsp;= 3.5), amongst others, were the dominant perceptions of respondents on agroforestry practices used, while taungya farming (76.9%) and home garden (72.1%) were the dominant agroforestry systems practiced. The regression result showed that the coefficients for education, household size, farm size, monthly income and extension contact were the socio-economic characteristics that influenced agroforestry practices. There were many types of agroforestry practices for the farmers and their socio-economic characteristics significantly influenced the practices. The study recommended the improvement of farmers’ education and extension service delivery which in turn enhances agroforestry practices in the study area.</p> C. R. Okonya-Chukwu, A. O., Chukwu, G. C. Onubuogu, J.C Nwaiwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 13 Aug 2022 11:09:46 +0000 DETERMINATION OF THE PERCEIVED EFFECT OF AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES ON THE WELFARE STATUS OF THE RURAL FARMERS IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA <p>This study determined the perceived effect of agroforestry practices on the welfare of rural farmers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Agroforestry practices has the potentials to improve the environment and welfare status of the farmers. Hence the study ascertained the benefits derivable from agroforestry&nbsp; practices, the perceived welfare status of the rural farmers, and determined the perceived effects of agroforestry practices on the welfare of rural farmers. The hypothesis tested is; agroforestry practices have no significant perceived effect on the welfare status of the rural farmers. Multistage sampling technique was used in the selection of agroforestry farmers. A total of 351 farmers were sampled using structured questionnaire. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed that taungya farming (76.9%) and home garden (72.1%) were the dominant agroforestry systems practiced. The result on the benefits of agroforestry practices showed that the entire agroforestry farmers (100.0%) agreed that they use agroforestry for environmental protection and soil conservation, 99.7% indicated that it provided fodder for the livestock and 99.4% agreed that it provided them with fuel wood (firewood). Become independent (&nbsp;= 3.2), have sufficient income to meet household needs (&nbsp;= 3.2), and ability to afford three-square meal in a day (&nbsp;= 3.3) were the dominant perceived welfare status of the agroforestry farmers. The bivariate regression result showed that agroforestry practices (x) had significant effect on the welfare status of the farmers. In conclusion, thepractices of agroforestry was perceived to have imparted positively on the welfare of the farmers. The study therefore, recommended that the farmers should be encouraged to continue to practice agroforestry and even expand their farms since by doing so, their welfare status is enhanced.</p> C. R. Okonya-Chukwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 13 Aug 2022 16:52:26 +0000